Fractures and dislocations of major joints
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation. Dislocations are often caused by sudden trauma on the joint like an impact or fall. A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Dislocations can occur in any joint major (shoulder, knees, etc.) or minor (toes, fingers, etc.). The most common joint dislocation is a shoulder dislocation.
Treatment for the joint dislocation is usually by closed reduction, that is, skilled manipulation to return the bones to their normal position. The reduction should only be performed by trained medical professionals because it can cause injury to soft tissue and/or the nerves and vascular structures around the dislocation.
The most common types of bone fractures are:
- Closed or simple bone fracture: a break in the bone in which the skin is still intact
- Open or compound bone fracture: a break in the bone in which the skin is perforated by the bone or by a blow at the time of the fracture
- Segmental or multiple bone fracture: a break at two or more places on the same bone
- Comminuted bone fracture: a break in which the bone is shattered into pieces